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水利工作的新理念
人与自然和谐共处
http://www.irtces.org    2004年3月24日15:08     

国际泥沙信息网2004年3月24日:  

        3月19日,中国工程院院士钱正英参加了香港大学工程学院的杰出学人讲座,并向广大师生做了“中国水利工作的新理念--人与自然和谐共处”的精彩学术报告。

         水是一切生命之源,是人类生存和发展的最基本要素之一。中国的古代传说中,四千多年前鲧以壅堵方法治水失败,其子大禹以疏导方法治水成功,最后统治天下。这不仅说明了在中国的自然条件下,水利和治国兴邦的紧密联系,也告诫我们在水利工作的实践中,必需不断认识水的客观规律,探索治水的理念。

        针对20世纪90年代以来中国水利出现的新情况和新问题,中国工程院在2000年7月向国务院提出的《中国可持续发展水资源战略研究综合报告》中,建议中国水资源的总体战略是“以水资源的可持续利用支持我国社会经济的可持续发展”,并提出从八个方面实行水利工作的战略性转变,其中第一项是:“在防洪减灾方面,要从无序、无节制地与水争地,转变为有序、可持续地与洪水协调共处。”这是在中国历史上,第一次提出与洪水协调共处的理念。2003年1月,中国工程院向国务院汇报《西北地区水资源配置、生态环境建设和可持续发展战略研究》的成果,进一步提出“确立人与自然和谐共存的发展方针”,并论述了在西北地区确立这个方针的现实可行性及其主要内容。就目前情况看,人与自然和谐共处的指导思想正在逐步取得共识,将成为中国现代水利的新的理念。对这个思想的正式提法,是人与自然“和谐共存”,或“和谐共处”、“和谐发展”、“协调发展”…,还可继续讨论斟酌,本文暂用“和谐共处”的提法。

        现在从以下几个方面作简要说明。

        一、人与自然的关系是水利工作中最为本质的问题

        1、水利工作的根本任务是人类如何改造自然界所赋予的水的条件,以求自身的生存和发展。由于水利具有改造自然的性质,对任何一项水利工程的评价,都要经过大自然的最终检验,水利工作中最本质的问题,就是如何处理人与自然的关系。从“靠天吃饭”、“人定胜天”到“人与自然和谐共处”,代表人类在处理与自然关系中不同阶段的理念。在全世界的水利事业中,都可追寻到这种发展的轨迹。

        2、中国从古代以来,进行了大量的水利建设,体现了人与自然关系的各种类型。筑堤防洪、挖沟排水、引水灌溉、围垦开荒,这是中国这片古老大地上改造自然的最普遍业绩,为中国人口的持续发展创造了条件,也带来了众多问题。京杭运河是人类改造自然的成功典型,但明、清时期为了遏制黄河夺淮入海后对运河通航的不利影响,在淮河中游末端建造“蓄清刷黄”的洪泽湖平原水库,抬高了淮河中游河段的水位,形成现代治淮的难点。两千多年前在川西平原修建的都江堰灌溉工程,可以说是人与自然和谐发展的范例。

        3、从总体水平来说,人类进入工业化社会以后,特别是发展了筑坝建库的水工技术以后,才有可能根本改变河流的天然状况,实现大规模的改造自然。在中国,20世纪50年代以后全面开展水利建设,控制和开发江河,从而大大改变了原来的自然环境。近年来水利工作中面临的一些问题,使人们在总结历史经验的基础上,深入反思人与自然的根本关系,逐步认识到人与自然和谐共处的必要性。

        二、新中国成立以后,水利工作的成绩和当前面临的问题

       1、水利工作的成绩

       通过兴建控制性的江河水库、全面整修堤防和整治河道,开发利用地表和地下水资源,基本控制了水旱灾害频繁交替的被动局面,为社会经济发展提供了相对安定的条件。在解决人民吃饭这个中国历史性的难题中,水利起了很大作用。水利还为工业和城市的大规模发展,提供了水源;并通过开发水电,解决了当前五分之一以上的能源需求。

       2、水利工作面临的问题

       (1)每年的洪灾损失仍然很大;为防御江河特大洪灾虽有一些对策,仍缺乏切实可靠的保证。

       (2)在北方地区,一方面水资源紧缺,制约社会经济的发展;同时,由于水资源开发过度,出现了河湖干涸、地下水衰竭等一系列的环境和生态问题。

       (3)工业、城市以至农业和农村的发展,都产生严重的水质污染和水环境恶化问题。

       以上各种具体问题向水利工作者提出一个根本性的问题,水利工作前进的道路应当指向何方?

        三、水利工作的前进方向

        应当从水利工作的根本理念上探索前进的方向,即:从人与自然的关系上探索前进的方向。

        1、关于洪水和洪灾

        人类应建立与洪水和谐共处的防洪减灾体系,应将洪水与洪灾加以区别。

        江河洪水是一种自然现象,是人类不可能完全消除的;江河洪灾则主要是由于人类开发利用江河冲积平原而产生的问题,应当由人类自己安排解决。人类为了自身的生存和发展,可以修建适当的水利工程,开发利用江河的冲积平原,但要避免过度和不合理的开发,要从无序、无节制地与洪水争地,转变为有序、可持续地与洪水和谐共处。治理江河的工程措施,只可能控制一定标准的洪水,不可能完全控制大洪水或特大洪水。因此,在建成具有一定标准的防洪工程体系的基础上,还要有计划地安排一部分土地,以备在发生超标准洪水时,为洪水让出足够的蓄泄空间。这部分土地在防洪规划中称为“分蓄洪区”,在服从分蓄洪要求的前提下,仍可以合理地加以利用。

        2、关于水资源的合理配置

        人类必须与周边的自然生态系统和谐共处,合理分享水土资源。

        人类为了发展社会经济,必需多占用一部分原本属于自然生态系统的水土资源;而为了人类自身的可持续发展,又必需适当维持周边的生态系统,以维护自己的生存环境。因此,必须研究如何与周边生态系统合理地分享水土资源。

        在研究我国西北地区的土地荒漠化问题后认为:由人类活动所造成的土地荒漠化,主要是由于人类过度或不合理地开发利用水土资源。就水资源来说,过去我们以为,水利工作的目标就是尽可能地控制、开发、利用水资源,满足社会经济的发展需求;但是在河湖干涸、地下水位下降,水质污染,从而引发了一系列的生态环境问题后,逐步认识到必须兼顾自然生态环境和人类社会经济的需要,合理配置水资源。要依靠现代科学技术和现代集约型的经济发展方式,解决水资源的供需矛盾。通过高效、节水、防污的社会经济模式,通过对用水效率和效益的不断提高,达到社会经济和自然环境的协调发展。

        3、关于防沙治沙

        人类应与沙漠和谐共处,而不是不顾自然条件地改造沙漠或“向沙漠进军”甚至“征服沙漠”。沙漠周边群众自己总结的正反面经验是:“人进沙进、人退沙退”,人与沙漠协调共处;而不是像有些人所设想的“人进沙退、人退沙进”,人与沙漠不断斗争。

        沙漠是地球环境的一个组成部分。沙漠和土地沙化是两个性质不同的概念。沙漠是地质年代形成的自然景象,是人类不能也不应消除的;沙化则是人类不合理利用水土资源而造成的土地退化的灾害,是人类应当也可以防治的。由于不合理利用水土资源而造成沙化的问题包括:由于滥垦、滥牧、滥樵、滥挖,造成草原植被的破坏;由于超采地下水造成地下水位大幅度下降,使植被退化以至衰亡;有的沙漠周边地区,由于种植一些当地降雨所不能支持的农作物或林草,耗尽了沙地蓄存的土壤水,也产生事与愿违的结果,使沙漠反而扩大。

        4、关于河流的生态功能

        在地球表层,河流具有不可替代的生态功能。它不仅支持河流内及其两岸走廊的生态系统,而且以其干流和不同等级的支流组成地球表层的各个水系,是地球水循环的陆面主要通道,它为陆地的各个生态系统输送物质和能量,也是陆地和海洋交换物质和能量的通道。形象地说,它是地球表层的脉络。

        在过去的水利工作中,没有重视和研究河流的生态功能,没有从生态功能的角度,研究河流变化的规律及其作用。例如,河流的洪水,它虽然有为害的一面,但它有补给两岸地下水和湖泊洼地的水源、塑造河床、稀释污水等作用,是维持河流生态功能所不可缺少的因素。内陆河流从上中游宣泄的季节性洪水,补给下游河道两岸的地下水和河道终端的湖泊,使河道两岸和湖泊周边的生态系统得以维持。黄河下游的河道也因每年有洪水冲刷泥沙,才能保持一定的河槽。保护每条河流的水质不受污染,更是保持河流生态功能的必要条件。

        四、对水利工作中贯彻人与自然和谐共处理念的各种不同认识

       1、到目前为止,在人与自然关系的基本理念上,仍有两种极端的认识。一种是过分抬高人类的地位,认为人类是自然界的绝对主体,应当也可以按照自己的发展要求,更加彻底地改造自然,对于人与自然和谐共处的理念,认为只是一种空谈。另一种是过分降低人类的地位,认为人类只是自然生态系统的一个成员,改造自然是干扰自然界的客观规律,将受到大自然的惩罚,应当尽量使自然环境恢复到人类发展前的原始状态,对于人与自然和谐共处的理念,认为还不能解决问题。这两种极端认识在现实生活中都是行不通的。

        人与自然和谐共处的理念是:肯定人是自然界的相对主体,人类的社会经济必须继续向前发展;同时,要清醒认识自然界的客观规律和自然资源的有限,认识到必须利用现代科学技术和现代生产力的发展,努力做到在与自然和谐共处中,实现自身的可持续发展。

        2、在对中国水利的议论中,上述两种极端都有所反映。

        例如:对新疆、青海、甘肃等地的一些内陆河流域,有些人认为西北水资源紧缺,不可能做到人与自然分享水资源,认为只需要建设和保护好人工绿洲,对没有直接经济效益的天然绿洲、天然湖泊以至河流尾闾,不必要配置水资源给以维持。有些人认为,必须实施 “南水北调大西线工程”,即从澜沧江、怒江、雅鲁藏布江等河流大量调水,才能保证西北地区的发展。

        另一方面,也有人根本否定水利工程的必要性。有的提出,在美国已经开始拆除一些水坝,我们也不应继续建设水坝。他们不了解,美国水库的总库容达到河川年均总径流量的34%以上,而我国水库的总库容仅为河川年均总径流量的17%多,两国的社会经济背景和发展水平不同,是不能相比的。

        在基本认同人与自然和谐共处的理念下,对一些具体问题,也有各种不同意见。例如:对渭河治理和三门峡水利枢纽的问题,对云南省的怒江应否开发水电,…,都有各种不同认识。

        3、我认为,在水利工作中,确立人与自然和谐共处的新理念,是近年来水利工作的最大进展。总的说来,一些争论的实质可归结于:“生态环境的可持续维护”和“社会经济的可持续发展”之间是否存在不可解决的矛盾,应如何处理这对矛盾?至于对一些具体问题的认识出现分歧,更是十分正常并值得欢迎的现象,这有助于推进国家决策的科学化和民主化。

        当前更为重要的是,如何围绕人与自然和谐共处的新理念,展开相应的前瞻性、指导性的科学研究工作;同时,如何将这个理念运用到水利工作的各个领域,如水资源的评价、配置、规划、设计和管理等方面。更为重要的是,如何充实和改进大学教育中水利学科的相应内容和教材,以这个理念培育水利界的新一代人才。

        数风流人物,还看明朝。水利工作的新世纪,寄托在今天的学校,这是我们这一代人的期待。

        (本文得到徐乾清、林秉南、刘昌明、石玉林、陈家琦、宁远诸位先生的审核指正,并承林秉南先生译成英文,特表示诚挚感谢。)

参考文献:

        (1)    中国工程院,中国可持续发展水资源战略研究

        (2)    中国工程院,西北地区水资源配置、生态环境建设和可持续发展战略研究

        (3)    The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group of U.S.A., Stream Corridor Restoration, Revised August, 2001.

        (4)    Boon PJ, Davies B R, Petts G E., Global Perspectives on River Conservation : Science, Policy, and Practice

        New Conception in Chinese Water Conservancy---

        Harmonious Coexistence of Humanity with Nature

         (Summary)

        By Qian Zhengying

         Water is the source of all lives and is a basic element determining the existence and development of humanity. The
 ancient Chinese folklore had it that more than four thousand years ago, a Mr. Gun was given the charge to regulate the
rivers of China. He resorted to damming and diking and failed in his mission. His son, the great Yu, succeeded, however,
by adopting instead the measures of draining and dredging and finally was made the ruler of the land. This is an example,
 illustrating, in the context of Chinese natural conditions, the close relationship between water conservancy and the
governing and developing of a state. This episode also illustrated the needs to keep enquiring into the objective laws
governing water and to search for the conception to guide water conservancy.

        Referring to the new developments and new problems encountered in Chinese water conservancy in the nineties of
 the last century, the Engineering Academy of China submitted to the China State Council, in July 2000, a document
entitled “Comprehensive Report on Strategic Study of Sustainable Development of Water Resources”. In this report,
the overall strategy to be applied to the administration of water resources in China is proposed to be “supporting the
sustainable socio-economic development of China with sustainable application of water resources”. The strategic
transformation of water conservancy is to be accomplished in eight respects. The first concerns the flood control and
flood disaster mitigation. It is proposed that in this respect “the random and reckless vying for land by human beings
against water is to be replaced by orderly and sustainable coexistence with floods in a harmonious manner”. This marks
for the first time in the Chinese history that the conception of harmonious coexistence of mankind with floods was set
forth. In January, 2003, while reporting to the China State Council on the strategic study concerning the allocation of
water resources, rehabilitation of ecological environment and sustainable development in the north-western China, the
Chinese Engineering Academy went further to propose “adopting the guideline of harmonious coexistence of humanity
with nature”. It also expounded the feasibility of adopting this guideline and its essence. It appears now that this idea
of harmonious coexistence of humanity with nature is gradually gaining common acceptance and will become a new
conception in modern water conservancy in China. The formal wording expressing this notion still remains open to
further discussion and consideration. It may be harmonious coexistence, harmonious association, harmonious
development, coordinated development and others. For the time being, the term harmonious coexistence is employed.

        Ⅰ. Properly placing the status of humanity with respect to nature is the very basic issue in water conservancy.

        1. Water conservancy consists basically in human modification of the natural occurrence of water in the interest of
human subsistence and development. Because of this, evaluation of any hydraulic engineering project will have to depend
 on the outcome of ultimate tests by nature. Thus the very basic issue in the conducting of water conservancy is to strike a balance between humanity and nature. Human attitude towards the nature has covered a spectrum marked by complete
 dependence on nature, intention to overpower nature and endeavor to keep compatible with nature. Traces of this
spectrum of evolution may be detected in the work of water conservancy all over the world.

        2. China has built, since the ancient time, a great number of hydraulic works embodying all types of human
relationship with nature. Levees for flood control, ditches for drainage, various structures for irrigation, all in an effort to
reclaim landfor cultivation, represent the most common deeds accomplished on this ancient land, contributing to a
continuous growth of Chinese population, while also ushering in a multitude of problems. Grand Canal was for a long
time regarded as an 
        exemplary case of success, until an embarrassing situation arose and lasted through the Ming and Qing dynasties,
when 
        the Yellow River breached its levees and switched its course into the lower reaches of the Huai River, causing
serious 
        sediment deposition in the Canal. As a remedy for maintaining navigation, the middle reaches of the Huai River were
 dammed, making the Hongze Lake as a reservoir to provide “clear” water from  the Huai to scour  the Canal, thus
 alleviating the harmful effects of the “muddy” water of the Yellow. This, however, had the consequence of raising the
stage of the Middle Huai River and whence brought about an unsolved problem in the regulation of the Huai River up to
now. All in all, Dujiangyan Irrigation Project built 2,000 years ago on the plain of Western Szechuan is still regarded as a
typical case of human development in harmony with the nature.

        3. It was only after entrance into the era of industrialized society with the development of high dam engineering,
that it began possible for the mankind to bring about fundamental changes in rivers from their natural conditions and
thereby to cause changes of nature on an unprecedented  scale. In China, extensive hydraulic construction was launched
after the fifties of the last century with the control and exploitation of rivers, thereby greatly changing the natural
environment heretofore prevailing. The problems arising from water conservancy in recent years have prompted people
to ponder on the basic relationship between human beings and nature, after summing up the historical experience. In this
process, it has gradually dawned on human beings that it is necessary to settle harmoniously with nature.

        Ⅱ.Achievements in water conservancy since the New China was founded and the problems being faced currently.

        1. Achievements in water conservancy

        Through construction of reservoirs on rivers and streams, renovation of levees and dikes on a large scale and
exploitation of surface and ground water, the harassing attacks by alternating occurrences of floods and droughts were
substantially brought under control, thus providing a relatively secure condition for socio-economic development. Water
 conservancy has played a very important role in helping solve the traditional, difficult problem of providing sufficient
food to feed the people. It has also provided water supplies needed in the growth of industries and cities on a large scale.
Of the total energy needed by the nation today, hydroelectricity has contributed 20% upwards.

        2. Problems confronting water conservancy

        (1) Annual loss to flooding is still very large. Although some measures are in reserve for defense against
extraordinary floods, they are still not quite ensured.

        (2) In north China, shortage in water resources is constraining the socio-economic development. Overexploitation of
 water resources has given rise to a series of environmental and ecological problems, including desiccation of rivers and
lakes and decline in groundwater supply.

        (3) Development of industries and cities in urban areas as well as of agriculture and communities in rural areas has
resulted in serious pollution of water and deterioration in aqueous environments.

        These problems post to the people in charge of water conservancy the basic question, namely, where should water
conservancy work lead to in future?

        Ⅲ. Whereto should water conservancy lead

        The future advance of water conservancy should be guided by the basic conception of water conservancy, namely,
by a proper relationship between humanity and nature.

        1. Flood and flood damages

        Humanity should establish a system for mitigation of flood damages, in which human beings may achieve
harmonious coexistence with floods. Floods are to be differentiated from flood damages. Floods in rivers are natural
events and are beyond human control. Flood damages, however, are principally due to human exploitation of land
resources of alluvial plains, and the problems arising thereby should be solved by human beings themselves. For
livelihood and development, human beings may appropriately exploit the resources of alluvial plains by building
appropriate hydraulic engineering. Excessive and irrational exploitation, however, is to be avoided. Random and reckless
reclamation of alluvial plains is to be replaced by orderly and sustainable coexistence with floods in harmony.         
        Engineering measures applied in the regulation of rivers may cope with floods of designated frequency but not with
large and extra-large floods. Thus, it would be necessary, in the presence of an engineering system of flood control of a
definite standard, to concede a piece of land with sufficient size for the detention of large and extra-large floods. In the
plans for flood control, this piece of land is designated as flood detention area. It may still be put to appropriate use
provided that the requirements of flood detention are observed.

        2. Rational allocation of water resources

        Humanity must live in harmony with the surrounding ecological system, sharing land and water resources rationally.

        For socio-economic development, it is manifesting that man has to procure more land and water than he is normally
 entitled to under natural conditions. But in order to ensure a sustainable development, man must not overreach himself.
Therefore, he must learn how to properly share the water and land resources with the surrounding ecological system.

        On completing a study of desertification of the northwestern region in China, it was recognized that land
desertification caused by human activities was mainly due to man’s irrational or excessive exploitation of water and
land resources. As to water resources, our past attitude in planning hydraulic engineering was to pursue the full control
and development of water resources in order to satisfy the needs of socio-economic development. It was only after the
onset of desiccation of lakes and rivers and the drop of ground water level, inducing whence a series of environmental and
 ecological problems, that man came to realize that water resources must be rationally apportioned. In the quest of a
solution to make the supply of water resources to meet the need, it is necessary to rely on modern science and
technology and to observe the intensive mode of economic development. The development of society and economy in
harmony with natural environment can only be achieved by way of a socio-economic model characterized by high
efficiency, water saving and freedom from pollution, along with continuous upgrading  of the efficiency and benefit of
water usage.

        3. Mitigation of desertification

        Man should try to achieve harmonious coexistence with deserts, instead of an attempt to remold, to attack or even
to “conquer” them. People living around deserts has summed up their experience with the desert as “to encroach on
the desert and the desert would encroach on you”and “to leave the desert alone and the desert would leave you
alone.”

        Desert is a constituent part of the earth. Desert and desertification carry different meanings. The former  has come
into existence through geological ages. Man cannot and should not attempt to get rid of it. Desertification, however, is the
 result of man’s improper management of water and soil resources leading to the degeneration of soil and is something
that man should and could find a remedy for it. The said improper management of water and soil resources includes
reckless reclamation, overgrazing, indiscriminate cutting and indiscriminate excavation that damage the vegetation of the
grassland. Moreover, there was also over-pumping of groundwater resulting in large depression of groundwater table that leads to the degeneration and eventually death of vegetation. In the perimeter zone of some deserts, the crops or trees
cultivated were such that their water duties exceeded what local precipitation could afford. As a result, the local soil
moisture was used up. This gave rise to the expansion of the desert, contrary to what was originally expected.

        4. Ecological functions of rivers

        Rivers on earth have irreplaceable ecological functions. Rivers not only render support to the ecological systems
within their flows and in the riparian corridors along both banks, but also help form on the earth various flow systems
comprising the main stem as well as tributaries of various grades. They form the principal terrestrial passages in the
earth’s overall circulation of water. Through them, mass and energy are transported among various ecological systems
on the earth and also from land to ocean. They form, so to speak, the arterial systems on the earth’s surface.

        Water conservancy in the past paid little attention to the ecological functions of the rivers, neither to the laws
governing changes of rivers and their consequences from the ecological point of view. Floods of rivers for instance,
despite their harmful aspects, are indispensable in maintaining the ecological function of a river through replenishing the
groundwater, the lakes and wetlands in the riparian areas, molding the river channels and diluting any sewage. In the case
of an inland river, floods from the upstream areas also serve to maintain the ecological systems in the riparian areas along
the lower reaches as well as around its terminal lake. In the case of the Lower Yellow River, scouring by annual floods is
instrumental in maintaining a channel of a definite size. Protecting every river from being polluted is the prerequisite for
the maintenance of its ecological function.   

        IV. Various views on application of the conception of harmonious coexistence of man with nature to the water
conservancy in China

         1. There have been two extreme views on the fundamental conception about human status in nature. On the one
hand, humanity is unduly taken as the absolutely dominating agent in nature. Consequently, it was suggested that human
 beings should and could more radically change the nature to suit their own requirements of development. The conception for human beings to live in harmony with the nature is consequently regarded as a talk empty of matter. On the other,
human status in nature is so much reduced that they are regarded as a mere member of the ecological system in nature.
Any attempt on the part of human beings to change the nature would then be tantamount to disturbing the laws of nature
 and would incite punishment from the nature. The natural environment accordingly must be restored to its primitive
state prior to any human development. It then follows that the conception of harmonious coexistence of humanity with
nature cannot yet help solve any problem. Both of these extreme views do not apply in the real world.

        The conception of harmonious coexistence of humanity with nature confirms a moderately main role played by
human beings in nature and the need for human socio- economy to advance. In the mean time, it is to be clearly
recognized that the laws of nature must be respected and that natural resources available are limited in amount. Resort
must then be made to the modern science and technology and the modern productive capability in seeking to achieve
sustainable development of humanity through harmonious coexistence with nature.

        2. In discussions involving Chinese water conservancy, both extreme views have been made known.

        For example, in dealing with the inland rivers of Xinjiang, Qinghai, Ganshu and other regions, some people
maintained that, since water resources in these northwestern areas were severely limited, it would be impossible for
human beings to share them with nature. What is to be only needed is to construct and preserve the artificial oases, while the fate of the natural lakes and natural oases as well as the tail reaches of rivers devoid of direct economic value should
all be left out of consideration. There are also people who are of the opinion that without resorting to diversion of water
 on extra large scale from the Lancangjiang, the Nujiang and the Yaluzangbujiang Rivers the development in the
northwestern region is impossible.

        On the contrary, there are people who deny the overall necessity of hydraulic development. Some argue that in
recent years, the USA has started to dismantle some dams. We in China should also stop dam construction. These
people overlook the fact that the gross storage capacity of American reservoirs has exceeded 34% of the average total
annual runoff of American rivers, whereas in China the relevant figures are only 17% upwards. It does not make sense to
compare countries of different socio-economic background and in different stages of development in this way.   

        Accepting in general the conception of harmonious coexistence of humanity with nature, people may still have
different opinions about some specific problems. For instance, there are different opinions about the regulation of the
Wei River, an important tributary of the Yellow River, as related to the Sanmen Gorge Project on the Yellow River, the
justification of developing the hydropower potential of the Nu River in Yunnan Province and others.

        3. In the writer’s opinion, endorsing the new conception of establishing harmonious coexistence of humanity with
nature may be regarded as the most important progress in Chinese water conservancy in recent years. Generally
speaking, any dispute in this respect is basically a debate involving sustainable protection of ecology and environment
and sustainable development of society and economy. Can the two be compatible? How should the contradiction be
treated?  As to various views of some specific problems, it is simply natural and to be welcomed. Debate on the different
 views would help promote national decision to higher levels of science and democracy. 

        For the time being, it is important to carry out further in-depth research of forward looking and instructive value
around the said new conception. In the mean time, ways and means should be found to extend the application of the said
conception to various fields of water conservancy, including evaluation, apportioning, planning, design and
administration of water resources. It is even more important to substantiate and modify the course material of hydraulic
 engineering in colleges and universities, so that new generations of hydraulic engineers may be brought up in compliance
with the said new conception.

        For further excellence, we shall keep looking forward and count on the institutions today to bring up brilliant new
generations of engineers and other specialists for the new century of water conservancy.

        (The author should like to sincerely thank Messrs. Xu Qianqin, Lin Bingnan, Liu Changming, Shi Yulin, Chen Jiaqi
and Ning Yuan for reviewing this paper. She wishes to express in particular her appreciation to Mr. Lin Bingnan for
kindly translating the Chinese version of this summary into English.)

        References
        [1]    Chinese Engineering Academy, 2000, Strategic study on sustainable development of Chinese water resources.

        [2]    Chinese Engineering Academy, 2003, Apportioning of water resources, rehabilitation of ecological
environment and sustainable development in the northwestern region.

        [3]    The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group of U.S.A., 2001, Stream corridor restoration
(revised).

        [4]    Boon, P.J., Davies, B.R., Petts G.E., 2000, Global Perspectives on River Conservation : Science, Policy and
Practice.

 

 
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